Selected Publications
Cognitive Development Lab
Washington University in St. Louis

Bui, D.C., Maddox, G., Zou, F. & Hale, S. (2013). Examining the lag effect under incidental encoding: Contributions of semantic priming and reminding. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, XX, XX-XX. [pdf]

Lilienthal, L., Tamez, E., Shelton, J. T., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2013). Dual n-back training increases the capacity of the focus of attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 135-141. [pdf]

Bui, D.C., Maddox, G.B, & Balota, D.A. (2013). The roles of working memory and intervening task difficulty in determining the benefits of repetition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(2), 341-347. [pdf]

Bui, D.C., Friedman, M.C., McDonough, I.M., & Castel, A.D. (2012). False memory and importance: Can we prioritize without consequence? Memory & Cognition, 41, 1012-1020. [pdf]

Bui, D.C., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2012). Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 341-347. [pdf]

Tamez, E., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2012). Contributions of associative learning to age and individual differences in fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 40, 518-529. [pdf]

Hale, S., Rose, N. S., Myerson, J., Strube, M. J., Sommers, M., Tye-Murray, N., & Spehar, B. (2011). The structure of working memory ability across the adult life span. Psychology & Aging, 26(1), 92-110. [pdf]

Rose, N.S., Myerson, J., Roediger, H., & Hale, S. (2010). Similarities and difference between working memory and long-term memory: Evidence from the levels-of-processing span task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(2), 471-483. [pdf]

Rose, N. S., Myerson, J., Sommers, M., & Hale, S. (2009).  Are there age differences in the executive component of working memory? Evidence from domain-general interference effects. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition. [pdf]

De Alwis, D., Myerson, J., Hershey, T., & Hale, S. (2009).  Childrenís higher-order cognitive abilities and the development of primary and secondary memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. [pdf]

Williams, B.A., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2008).  Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90, 219-231. [pdf]

Tye-Murray, N., Sommers, M., Spehar, B., Myerson, J., Hale, S., & Rose, N. S. (2008).  Auditory-visual discourse comprehension by older and young adults in favorable and unfavorable conditions.  International Journal of Audiology, 47, S31-S37. [pdf]

Emery, L., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (2008).  Age differences in proactive interference, working memory, and abstract reasoning.  Psychology & Aging, 23, 634-645. [pdf]

Tamez, E., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2008).  Learning, working memory, and intelligence revisited.  Behavioural Processes, 8, 240-245. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Robertson, S., & Hale, S. (2007). Aging and intraindividual variability: Analyses of response time distributions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88, 319-337. [pdf]

Chen, J., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (2007). Predicting the size of individual and group differences on speeded cognitive tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 534-541. [pdf]

Hale, S., Myerson, J., Emery, L. J., Lawrence, B. M., & DuFault, C. (2007). Variation in working memory across the lifespan. In A.R.A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M.J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J.N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 194-224). New York: Oxford University Press.

Heydebrand, G., Hale, S. Potts, L., Gotter, B., & Skinner, M. (2007). Cognitive predictors of improvements in adultsí spoken word recognition six months after cochlear implant activation.  Audiology & Neurotology, 12, 254-264. [pdf]

Emery, L., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2007). Age differences in item-manipulation span: The case of letter-number sequencing. Psychology & Aging, 22, 75-83. [pdf]

Robertson, S., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2006). Are there age differences in intra-individual variability in working memory performance? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61, 18-24. [pdf]

Emery, L., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2006). Saying versus touching: Are age differences in short-term memory affected by the type of response? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61, 366-368. [pdf]

Lawrence, B.M., Myerson, J., & Abrams, R. A. (2004). Interference with spatial working memory: An eye movement is more than a shift of attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 488-494. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Hale, S., Zheng, Y., Jenkins, L., & Widaman, K. F. (2003). The Difference Engine: A model of individual and group differences in processing speed. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 262-288. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Emery, L., White, D.A., & Hale, S. (2003). Effects of age, domain, and processing demands on memory span: Evidence for differential decline. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, 10, 20-27. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Adams, D.R., Hale, S., & Jenkins, L. (2003). Analysis of group differences in processing speed: Brinley plots, Q-Q plots, and other conspiracies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 224-237. [pdf]

Chen, J., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (2003). Effects of domain, retention interval, and information load on young and older adultsí visuospatial working memory. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, 10, 122-133. [pdf]

Chen, J., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2002). Age-related dedifferentiation of visuospatial abilities.  Neuropsychologia, 40, 2050-2056. [pdf]

Lawrence, B.M., Myerson, J., Oonk, H.M., & Abrams, R.A. (2001). The effects of eye and limb movements on working memory. Memory, 9, 433-444. [pdf]

Zheng, Y., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2000). Age and individual differences in information-processing speed: Testing the magnification hypothesis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 113-120. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Jenkins, L., Hale, S., & Sliwinski, M. (2000). Stocks and losses, items and interference: A reply to Oberaur and SŁŖ (2000). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 734-740. [pdf] 

Jenkins, L., Myerson, J., Joerding, J.A., & Hale, S. (2000). Converging evidence that visuospatial cognition is more age-sensitive than verbal cognition. Psychology & Aging, 15, 157-175. [pdf]

Fry, A.F., & Hale, S.  (2000). Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biological Psychology, 54, 1-34. [pdf]

Chen, J., Myerson, J., Hale, S., & Simon, A. (2000). Behavioral evidence for brain-based ability factors in visuospatial information processing. Neuropsychologia, 38, 380-387. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Hale, S., Rhee, S.H., & Jenkins, L. (1999). Selective interference with verbal and spatial working memory in young and older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 54B, 161-164. [pdf] 

Myerson, J., Lawrence, B., Hale, S., Jenkins, L., & Chen, J. (1999). General slowing of lexical and nonlexical processing in Dementia of the Alzheimerís Type. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, 6, 182-193. [pdf]

Jenkins, L. Myerson, J., Hale, S., & Fry, A.F. (1999). Individual and developmental differences in working memory across the life span. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 28-40. [pdf]

Schatz, J.C., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1998). Cerebellar contribtuions to linguistic processing efficiency revealed by focal damage. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 491-501. [pdf]

Lawrence, B., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (1998). Differential decline of verbal and visuospatial information processing speed across the adult life span. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 5, 129-146. [pdf]    

Hershey, T., Craft, S., Glauser, T., & Hale, S. (1998). Short-term and long-term memory in early temporal lobe dysfunction. Neuropsychology, 12, 52-64. [pdf]

White, D.A., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (1997). How cognitive is psychomotor slowing in depression? Evidence from a meta-analysis. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition: Special Issue on Comparative Adult Cognition, 4, 166-174. [pdf]

Hale, S. (1997).  Introduction. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition: Special Issue on Comparative Adult Cognition, 4, 155-156. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Hale, S., Chen, J., & Lawrence, B.M. (1997). General lexical slowing and the semantic priming effect:  The roles of age and ability. Acta Psychologica, 96, 83-101. [pdf]

Hale, S., Bronik, M., & Fry, A. F. (1997). Verbal and spatial working memory in school-age children:  Developmental differences in susceptibility to interference. Developmental Psychology, 33, 364-371. [pdf]

Hale, S., Myerson, J., Rhee, S., Weiss, C., & Abrams, R. (1996). Selective interference with the maintenance of location information in working memory. Neuropsychology, 10, 225-240. [pdf]

Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1996). Experimental evidence for differential slowing in the lexical and nonlexical domains. Aging, Neuropsyhcology, & Cognition, 3, 154-165. [pdf]

Fry, A.F., & Hale, S. (1996). Processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence:  Evidence for a developmental cascade. Psychological Science, 7, 237-241. [pdf]

White, D., Craft, S., Hale, S., Schatz, J., & Park, T.S. (1995). Working memory following improvements in articulation rate in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 49-55. [pdf]

Hale, S., Myerson, J., Faust, M., & Fristoe, N. (1995). Converging evidence for domain-specific slowing from multiple nonlexical tasks and multiple analytic methods. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 50B, 202-211. [pdf]

Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1995). Fifty years older, fifty percent slower?  Meta-analytic regression models and semantic context effects. Aging & Cognition, 2, 132-145. [pdf]

White, D., Craft, S., Hale, S., & Park, T.S. (1994). Working memory and articulation rate in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Neuropsychology, 8, 180-186. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Wagstaff, D., & Hale, S. (1994). Brinley plots, explained variance, and the analysis of age differences in response latencies. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 49, P72-P80. [pdf]

Hale, S., & Jansen, J. (1994). Global processing-time coefficients characterize group and individual differences in cognitive speed. Psychological Science, 5, 384-389. [pdf]

Cerella, J., & Hale, S. (1994). The rise and fall of information processing rates across the life span. Acta Psychologica, 86, 109-197. [pdf]

Hale, S., Fry, A.F, & Jessie, K.A. (1993). Effects of practice on speed of information processing in children and adults: Age-sensitivity and age-invariance. Developmental Psychology, 29, 880-892. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Ferraro, F.R., Hale, S., & Lima, S.D. (1992). General slowing in semantic priming and word recognition. Psychology & Aging, 7, 257-270. [pdf]

Lima, S.D., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1991). How general is general slowing? Evidence from the lexical domain. Psychology & Aging, 6, 416-425. [pdf]

        Hale, S., Lima, S.D., & Myerson, J. (1991). General cognitive slowing in the nonlexical domain: An                 experimental validation. Psychology & Aging, 6, 512-521. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Hale, S., Wagstaff, D., Poon, L.W., & Smith, G.A. (1990). The information-loss model: A mathematical theory of age-related cognitive slowing. Psychological Review, 97, 475-487. [pdf]

Hale, S. (1990). A global developmental trend in cognitive processing speed. Child Development, 61, 653-663. [pdf]

Myerson, J., Hale, S., Hansen, C., Hirschman, R.B., & Christiansen, B. (1989). Global changes in response latencies of early middle-age adults: Individual complexity effects. (Special issue on Cognition.) Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 353-362. [pdf]

Baron, A., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (1988). An integrated analysis of the structure and function of behavior: Aging and the cost of dividing attention. In G. Davey & C. Cullen, (Ed.), Human operant conditioning and behavior modification (pp. 139-166). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. [pdf]

Smith, G.A., Poon, L. W., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1988). A regular relationship between old and young adults' latencies on their best, average and worst trials. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 195-210. [pdf]

Hale, S., Myerson, J., Smith, G.A., & Poon, L.W. (1988). Age, variability, and speed: Between-subjects diversity. Psychology & Aging, 3, 407-410. [pdf]

Hale, S., Myerson, J., & Wagstaff, D. (1987). General slowing of nonverbal information processing: Evidence for a power law. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 131-136. [pdf]

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